For your kid

Undescended testicles

A common condition in which at least one testicle fails to move down into the scrotal sac as the male fetus develops. In most cases, this is resolved on its own in the first year of life. If this condition persists after the first year of life, it definitely needs to be corrected, eather medicamentally or surgically, to avoid damage to the testicle, which can result in infertility or hormonal disorders in the future of your boy.


A common malformation is the narrowing of the foreskin, called phimosis. This condition is physiological in the first months of life and therefore does not need to be corrected immediately. However, if problems ocurr including inflammation of the foreskin and the glans, blockage of the urinary stream, an early correction may be necessary. We advice to correct a fimosis before entering school age.

An alternative to complete circumcision is the so-called "Triple Incision", an operation method in which the foreskin is only dilated and not removed completely.

Vesicoureteral Reflux

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) occurs when urine stored in the bladder flows back up into the ureters (the tubes that run down from the kidneys to the bladder), and often back up into the kidneys. This can cause hydronephrosis (swelling of the kidney) and kidney damage. It is particularly common in children, usually caused by a congenital abnormality and often diagnosed during a prenatal ultrasound or when the infant or child has a urinary tract infection (UTI). VUR is discovered in approximately one in three children diagnosed with a UTI. When not treated through either antibiotic therapy or, when necessary, surgery, VUR can allow bacteria that grow in urine to enter the kidneys, which can lead to kidney infection, kidney damage, and chronic kidney failure.


Hypospadias is a relatively common condition present at birth in which the opening of the urethra – the tube that carries urine from the body – is on the underside of the penis rather than at the tip. It is among the most common birth defects involving the penis, present in approximately 1 in 300 males in varying degrees of severity. When untreated, moderate or severe hypospadias can lead to problems properly using the toilet and, by adulthood, difficulties with sexual intercourse and fertility. However, in most cases surgery during infancy will restore the penis’ normal function and appearance.

Nocturnal Enuresis

Nocturnal enuresis is involuntary urination during sleep – more commonly called bedwetting – beyond an appropriate age (around 5 years old). It is among the most common pediatric health issues and, although it can be unsettling for children and their families, it generally should not be a cause for concern. The condition is known as primary nocturnal enuresis when the child has never been consistently dry at night; children with secondary nocturnal enuresis start wetting their bed after having stayed dry for an extended period.

Urinary tract infections

UTIs in children are not uncommon, especially in girls. In most cases, the are caused by bacterial infections due to  a lack of fluid intake or problems with the toilet hygiene, especially at entering kindergarden time. They can be treated conservatively by changing the “toilet habits”. In rare cases, UTIs can be caused by malformations of the urogenital tract like UPI-obstruction, hydronefrosis, vesico-ureteral relux, ureteric valves etc.


Kidney stones in infancy are uncommon and often caused by metabolic diseases. These disease cause an overexcretion of different blood components in the urine, which can lead to stone formation in the kidneys. In most cases, these stone a treated by external shock-wafe therapy and/or treatment of the metabolic disorder.